Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. Architecture from Chola period From left to right: The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. During the 13th century, Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Veeran Sundaralingam — was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in which killed more than British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace.
Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called palayams. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. George  and established a trading post at Madras. Around , the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat ,  while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar. In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called Polygar war to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom. Fort Dansborg at Tharangambadi built by the Danish Europeans started to establish trade centres during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions. The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. He defeated Mahipala , the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts. The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland. British constructed Fort St. Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the Kingdom of Mysore. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world. Power struggles of the 18th century — [ edit ] By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after the midth century, many local rulers, called Nayaks , succeeded in gaining the trappings of independence. The Meenakshi Amman Temple Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in , the northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the nawab of the Carnatic , who had his seat in Arcot from onward.
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