Visually, early narrative films had adapted little from the stage, and their narratives had adapted very little from vaudeville and melodrama. In Sweden and Denmark, this period would be known as a "Golden Age" of film;  in America, this artistic change is attributed to film-makers like David W. They are causal agents motivated by psychological rather than social concerns. Cinematic time[ edit ] Time in classical Hollywood is continuous, linear, and uniform, since non-linearity calls attention to the illusory workings of the medium. Lillian Gish , the star of The Mothering Heart, is particularly noted for her influence on screen performance techniques.
The treatment of space in classical Hollywood strives to overcome or conceal the two-dimensionality of film "invisible style" and is strongly centered upon the human body. Cutting techniques in classical continuity editing serve to help establish or maintain continuity, as in the cross cut , which establishes the concurrence of action in different locations. It is distinguished at three general levels: The majority of shots in a classical film focus on gestures or facial expressions medium-long and medium shots. Utilizing actors, events, causal effects, main points, and secondary points are basic characteristics of this type of narrative. Balancing refers to the visual composition, i. Directors[ edit ] The following is a list of directors associated with classical Hollywood. Films worldwide began to noticeably adopt visual and narrative elements which would be found in classical Hollywood cinema. It comes magically off the screen. This includes the degree rule , one of the major visual-spatial elements of continuity editing. If they are recognized in more than one category on the same level, they are listed in all of them. Cinematic time[ edit ] Time in classical Hollywood is continuous, linear, and uniform, since non-linearity calls attention to the illusory workings of the medium. The degree rule keeps with the "photographed play" style by creating an imaginary degree axis between the viewer and the shot, allowing viewers to clearly orient themselves within the position and direction of action in a scene. Most of these film-makers started as directors on the late 19th century stage, and likewise most film actors had roots in vaudeville or theatrical melodramas. Narrative logic[ edit ] Classical narration progresses always through psychological motivation, i. The primary changes in American film-making came from the film industry itself, with the height of the studio system. Film historians and critics note that it took about a decade for films to adapt to sound and return to the level of artistic quality of the silents, which it did in the late s. The beginning of the sound era itself is ambiguously defined. List of important figures in the era[ edit ] Many of the film-makers listed below did multiple chores on various film productions through their careers. Devices[ edit ] The devices most inherent to classical Hollywood cinema are those of continuity editing. Griffith finally breaking the grip of the Edison Trust to make films independent of the manufacturing monopoly. They are here listed by the category they are most readily recognized as. According to the degree rule , cuts in the angle that the scene is viewed from must be significant enough for the viewer to understand the purpose of a change in perspective. Cutting was extremely limited, and mostly consisted of close-ups of writing on objects for their legibility. Classical Hollywood cinema in the sound era late s — s [ edit ] The narrative and visual style of classical Hollywood style would further develop after the transition to sound-film production. The characters in Classical Hollywood Cinema have clearly definable traits, are active, and very goal oriented. Before the visual style which would become known as "classical continuity", scenes were filmed in full shot and used carefully choreographed staging to portray plot and character relationships.
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