The UK Government rejected the recommendation. An allegation that describes events that did occur, but were perpetrated by an individual who is not accused, and in which the accused person is innocent. When a child makes this type of allegation it is termed "perpetrator substitution"; An allegation that is partially true and partially false, in that it mixes descriptions of events that actually happened with other events that did not occur. Until , multiple allegations against the same person could only be held to be mutually corroborating if there were 'striking similarities' between the alleged crimes, indicating a criminal's 'signature,' a distinct modus operandi. In effect, the courts have accepted the idea of 'corroboration by volume'.
In particular, a lower rate was found in studies that considered false allegations to be based on intentional lying, whereas the higher rates were reported in studies that also added unintentional false allegations resulting from suggestive questioning. It could also be done for the purposes of extortion or blackmail. However this recommendation contradicted the Government White Paper Justice for All , which proposed lowering the threshold for the admission of similar fact evidence still further. When a child makes this type of allegation it is termed "perpetrator substitution"; An allegation that is partially true and partially false, in that it mixes descriptions of events that actually happened with other events that did not occur. The accused, even if acquitted, risks being fired from their job, losing their friends and other relationships, having their property vandalized, and being harassed by those believing them to be guilty. Once any steps are taken to justify the decision that the accused is guilty, it becomes very difficult for the official to accept disconfirming evidence, and this can continue during appeals , retrials or any other effort to revisit a verdict. But the judgment removed this protection. False allegations when interviewing children Disconfirming evidence can lead to cognitive dissonance on the part of these individuals, and lead them to deliberately or unconsciously attempt to resolve dissonance by ignoring, discounting or even destroying the evidence. In effect, the courts have accepted the idea of 'corroboration by volume'. In highly publicized cases, the general public has a strong tendency to summarily assume the accused is guilty, leading to very serious social stigma. Types[ edit ] When there is insufficient supporting evidence to determine whether an accusation is true or false, it is described as "unsubstantiated" or "unfounded". A prominent British paediatric neuropathologist, Dr Waney Squier, made headlines in by stating she believed that 'half or even more of those who have been brought to trial in the past for SBS have been wrongly convicted'. Until , multiple allegations against the same person could only be held to be mutually corroborating if there were 'striking similarities' between the alleged crimes, indicating a criminal's 'signature,' a distinct modus operandi. Accusations that are determined to be false based on corroborating evidence can be divided into three categories: A false allegation can occur as the result of intentional lying on the part of the accuser;  or unintentionally, due to a confabulation , either arising spontaneously due to mental illness  or resulting from deliberate or accidental suggestive questioning, coaching of the child, or faulty interviewing techniques. The nature of the crime leveled at them often evokes an overwhelming sense of betrayal. This, combined with the police practice of "trawling" for child abuse victims using door-to-door interviews and the potential for monetary compensation, has created opportunities and incentive for false allegations to occur: An allegation that describes events that did occur, but were perpetrated by an individual who is not accused, and in which the accused person is innocent. The UK Government rejected the recommendation.
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